Isnin, 8 April 2013

Senarai ubat dari Tumbuhan


Senarai ubat dari Tumbuhan

 

Drugs from Plants

Ethnobotany & Chemistry

There are over a hundred chemical substances that have been derived from plants for use as drugs and medicines. This is by no means a comprehensive list of all of the plants, names of chemicals, or uses for those chemicals, but it should serve as a useful starting point for further research. For your convenience, I have listed the common name of a plant next to its scientific name. Be advised that common names are very imprecise and often assigned to completely different plants, so use the scientific name when looking for additional information concerning a plant.

Drug/Chemical
Action
Plant Source
Acetyldigoxin
Cardiotonic
Digitalis lanata (Grecian foxglove, woolly foxglove)
Adoniside
Cardiotonic
Adonis vernalis (pheasant's eye, red chamomile)
Aescin
Antiinflammatory
Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut)
Aesculetin
Antidysentery
Frazinus rhychophylla
Agrimophol
Anthelmintic
Agrimonia supatoria
Ajmalicine
Treatment for circulatory disorders
Rauvolfia sepentina
Allantoin
Vulnerary
Several plants
Allyl isothiocyanate
Rubefacient
Brassica nigra (black mustard)
Anabesine
Skeletal muscle relaxant
Anabasis sphylla
Andrographolide
Treatment for baccillary dysentery
Andrographis paniculata
Anisodamine
Anticholinergic
Anisodus tanguticus
Anisodine
Anticholinergic
Anisodus tanguticus
Arecoline
Anthelmintic
Areca catechu (betel nut palm)
Asiaticoside
Vulnerary
Centella asiatica (gotu cola)
Atropine
Anticholinergic
Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade)
Benzyl benzoate
Scabicide
Several plants
Berberine
Treatment for bacillary dysentery
Berberis vulgaris (common barberry)
Bergenin
Antitussive
Ardisia japonica (marlberry)
Betulinic acid
Anticancerous
Betula alba (common birch)
Borneol
Antipyretic, analgesic, antiinflammatory
Several plants
Bromelain
Antiinflammatory, proteolytic
Ananas comosus (pineapple)
Caffeine
CNS stimulant
Camellia sinensis (tea, also coffee, cocoa and other plants)
Camphor
Rubefacient
Cinnamomum camphora (camphor tree)
Camptothecin
Anticancerous
Camptotheca acuminata
(+)-Catechin
Hemostatic
Potentilla fragarioides
Chymopapain
Proteolytic, mucolytic
Carica papaya (papaya)
Cissampeline
Skeletal muscle relaxant
Cissampelos pareira (velvet leaf)
Cocaine
Local anaesthetic
Erythroxylum coca (coca plant)
Codeine
Analgesic, antitussive
Papaver somniferum (poppy)
Colchiceine amide
Antitumor agent
Colchicum autumnale (autumn crocus)
Colchicine
Antitumor, antigout
Colchicum autumnale (autumn crocus)
Convallatoxin
Cardiotonic
Convallaria majalis (lily-of-the-valley)
Curcumin
Choleretic
Curcuma longa (turmeric)
Cynarin
Choleretic
Cynara scolymus (artichoke)
Danthron
Laxative
Cassia species
Demecolcine
Antitumor agent
Colchicum autumnale (autumn crocus)
Deserpidine
Antihypertensive, tranquilizer
Rauvolfia canescens
Deslanoside
Cardiotonic
Digitalis lanata (Grecian foxglove, woolly foxglove)
L-Dopa
Anti-parkinsonism
Mucuna species (nescafe, cowage, velvetbean)
Digitalin
Cardiotonic
Digitalis purpurea (purple foxglove)
Digitoxin
Cardiotonic
Digitalis purpurea (purple foxglove)
Digoxin
Cardiotonic
Digitalis purpurea (purple or common foxglove)
Emetine
Amoebicide, emetic
Cephaelis ipecacuanha
Ephedrine
Sympathomimetic, antihistamine
Ephedra sinica (ephedra, ma huang)
Etoposide
Antitumor agent
Podophyllum peltatum (mayapple)
Galanthamine
Cholinesterase inhibitor
Lycoris squamigera (magic lily, resurrection lily, naked lady)
Gitalin
Cardiotonic
Digitalis purpurea (purple or common foxglove)
Glaucarubin
Amoebicide
Simarouba glauca (paradise tree)
Glaucine
Antitussive
Glaucium flavum (yellow hornpoppy, horned poppy, sea poppy)
Glasiovine
Antidepressant
Octea glaziovii
Glycyrrhizin
Sweetener, treatment for Addison's disease
Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice)
Gossypol
Male contraceptive
Gossypium species (cotton)
Hemsleyadin
Treatment for bacillary dysentery
Hemsleya amabilis
Hesperidin
Treatment for capillary fragility
Citrus species (e.g., oranges)
Hydrastine
Hemostatic, astringent
Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal)
Hyoscyamine
Anticholinergic
Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane, stinking nightshade, henpin)
Irinotecan
Anticancer, antitumor agent
Camptotheca acuminata
Kaibic acud
Ascaricide
Digenea simplex (wireweed)
Kawain
Tranquilizer
Piper methysticum (kava kava)
Kheltin
Bronchodilator
Ammi visaga
Lanatosides A, B, C
Cardiotonic
Digitalis lanata (Grecian foxglove, woolly foxglove)
Lapachol
Anticancer, antitumor
Tabebuia species (trumpet tree)
a-Lobeline
Smoking deterrant, respiratory stimulant
Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco)
Menthol
Rubefacient
Mentha species (mint)
Methyl salicylate
Rubefacient
Gaultheria procumbens (wintergreen)
Monocrotaline
Topical antitumor agent
Crotalaria sessiliflora
Morphine
Analgesic
Papaver somniferum (poppy)
Neoandrographolide
Treatment of dysentery
Andrographis paniculata
Nicotine
Insecticide
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)
Nordihydroguaiaretic acid
Antioxidant
Larrea divaricata (creosote bush)
Noscapine
Antitussive
Papaver somniferum (poppy)
Ouabain
Cardiotonic
Strophanthus gratus (ouabain tree)
Pachycarpine
Oxytocic
Sophora pschycarpa
Palmatine
Antipyretic, detoxicant
Coptis japonica (Chinese goldenthread, goldthread, Huang-Lia)
Papain
Proteolytic, mucolytic
Carica papaya (papaya)
Papavarine
Smooth muscle relaxant
Papaver somniferum (opium poppy, common poppy)
Phyllodulcin
Sweetener
Hydrangea macrophylla (bigleaf hydrangea, French hydrangea)
Physostigmine
Cholinesterase inhibitor
Physostigma venenosum (Calabar bean)
Picrotoxin
Analeptic
Anamirta cocculus (fish berry)
Pilocarpine
Parasympathomimetic
Pilocarpus jaborandi (jaborandi, Indian hemp)
Pinitol
Expectorant
Several plants (e.g., bougainvillea)
Podophyllotoxin
Antitumor, anticancer agent
Podophyllum peltatum (mayapple)
Protoveratrines A, B
Antihypertensives
Veratrum album (white false hellebore)
Pseudoephredrine
Sympathomimetic
Ephedra sinica (ephedra, ma huang)
nor-pseudoephedrine
Sympathomimetic
Ephedra sinica (ephedra, ma huang)
Quinidine
Antiarrhythmic
Cinchona ledgeriana (quinine tree)
Quinine
Antimalarial, antipyretic
Cinchona ledgeriana (quinine tree)
Qulsqualic acid
Anthelmintic
Quisqualis indica (Rangoon creeper, drunken sailor)
Rescinnamine
Antihypertensive, tranquilizer
Rauvolfia serpentina
Reserpine
Antihypertensive, tranquilizer
Rauvolfia serpentina
Rhomitoxin
Antihypertensive, tranquilizer
Rhododendron molle (rhododendron)
Rorifone
Antitussive
Rorippa indica
Rotenone
Piscicide, Insecticide
Lonchocarpus nicou
Rotundine
Analagesic, sedative, traquilizer
Stephania sinica
Rutin
Treatment for capillary fragility
Citrus species (e.g., orange, grapefruit)
Salicin
Analgesic
Salix alba (white willow)
Sanguinarine
Dental plaque inhibitor
Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot)
Santonin
Ascaricide
Artemisia maritma (wormwood)
Scillarin A
Cardiotonic
Urginea maritima (squill)
Scopolamine
Sedative
Datura species (e.g., Jimsonweed)
Sennosides A, B
Laxative
Cassia species (cinnamon)
Silymarin
Antihepatotoxic
Silybum marianum (milk thistle)
Sparteine
Oxytocic
Cytisus scoparius (scotch broom)
Stevioside
Sweetener
Stevia rebaudiana (stevia)
Strychnine
CNS stimulant
Strychnos nux-vomica (poison nut tree)
Taxol
Antitumor agent
Taxus brevifolia (Pacific yew)
Teniposide
Antitumor agent
Podophyllum peltatum (mayapple or mandrake)
a-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
Antiemetic, decreases occular tension
Cannabis sativa (marijuana)
Tetrahydropalmatine
Analgesic, sedative, tranquilizer
Corydalis ambigua
Tetrandrine
Antihypertensive
Stephania tetrandra
Theobromine
Diuretic, vasodilator
Theobroma cacao (cocoa)
Theophylline
Diuretic, bronchodilator
Theobroma cacao and others (cocoa, tea)
Thymol
Topical antifungal
Thymus vulgaris (thyme)
Topotecan
Antitumor, anticancer agent
Camptotheca acuminata
Trichosanthin
Abortifacient
Trichosanthes kirilowii (snake gourd)
Tubocurarine
Skeletal muscle relaxant
Chondodendron tomentosum (curare vine)
Valapotriates
Sedative
Valeriana officinalis (valerian)
Vasicine
Cerebral stimulant
Vinca minor (periwinkle)
Vinblastine
Antitumor, Antileukemic agent
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)
Vincristine
Antitumor, Antileukemic agent
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)
Yohimbine
Aphrodisiac
Pausinystalia yohimbe (yohimbe)
Yuanhuacine
Abortifacient
Daphne genkwa (lilac)
Yuanhuadine
Abortifacient
Daphne genkwa (lilac)

Much of the material contained in this table is from Leslie Taylor's Plant Based Drugs and Medicines article, from RainTree Nutrition (2000). The RainTree site contains additional information and links for further research.

 

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