Sabtu, 20 April 2013

jasminum-sambac



Taxon: Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton
Genus: Jasminum Family: Oleaceae tribe: Jasmineae.

Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Asteridae
Order Scrophulariales
Family Oleaceae – Olive family
Genus Jasminum L. – jasmine
Species Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton – Arabian jasmine
Synonyms:
(≡) Nyctanthes sambac L. (basionym)
(=) Nyctanthes undulata L.

Common names:
Arabian jasmine (Source: World Econ Pl )
Melor (Peninsular Malaysia)
Melati (general), Menur (Javanese)
mo li hua (Source: F ChinaEng ) [Transcribed Chinese]
jasmin d'Arabie (Source: C. Feuillet, p.c.) [French]
bogarim (Source: Dict Rehm ) [Portuguese]
jasmim (Source: Portuguese Dict ) [Portuguese]
jazmín de Arabia (Source: Dict Rehm ) [Spanish]

History:
  • Since ancient times Jasmine has been thought of as the 'queen of flowers'. The name Jasmine is derived from the Persia 'yasmin', meaning a fragrant flower. It's also a Persian girl name.
  • It was said that a Chinese emperor of the Sung dynasty (960-1279 AD) had Jasmine in his palace grounds so he could enjoy its fragrance. In the 1400s, Jasmine was planted for kings of Afghanistan, Nepal and Persia.
  • Jasmine sambac ("Maid of Orleand" single variety), sampaguita, is the national flower of Philippines. It is a symbol of purity, simplicity, humility and strength. Arabian jasmine makes a great container plant for the patio where its fine fragrance can be easily enjoyed.
  • In 1934 Governor-General Frank Murphy, moved by sentiment, named it a national symbol. "Sentiment has dictated the selection of national flowers either symbolical of certain national or sentiments, or reminiscent of some important historical or traditional events," Murphy explained in Proclamation Number 652. "France has her fleur-de-lis and Japan her cherry blossom," he said. "In the same way the Philippines should have her national flower."
  • On advice from the secretary of agriculture, Murphy concluded: "Considering its popularity, ornamental value, fragrance and the role it plays in the legends and traditions of the Filipino people, I hereby declare the sampaguita to be the national flower of the Philippine Islands. Done at the City of Manila, this first day of February, in the year of our Lord, nineteen hundred and thirty four."
  • Sampaguita, a Spanish term, comes from the Pilipino words "sumpa kita," which means "I promise you." It is a pledge of mutual love. In early days, a young couple exchanged sampaguita necklaces much like a bride and groom exchange wedding rings nowadays. To this day, garlands of sampaguita are offered to dignitaries and special guests.
  • Jasmine arrived in the Philippines in pre-recorded times, most likely as an item of barter or gift on board trade boats plying the South China Sea. In the Philippines a type of Jasmine called sampaga was described as early as 1698 when Ignacio Mercado, an Augustinian monk, first wrote about its medicinal use in the Declaracion de las virtudes de los arboles y plantas que estan en este libro. In translation, Mercado said that the leaves of the sampaga (which has bigger flowers than sampaguita) made a wonderful syrup to comfort the heart. The vapor was a good cure for asthma.
  • The variety Jasminium sambac, is a clustered flower of equally strong scent known in Hawai'i as the "Pikake". It was a favorite of Princess Kaiulani who was also very fond of Peacocks, thus the name of the flower pronounced as pea-cock-kay".
  • The existence of the Jasmine flower is described comprehensively in the script called Siwaratrikalpa (old Javanese literature) composed around XV AD when Adi Suprabawa governed the Majapahit kingdom, East Java. This flower was called "menur" in this script. It also stated that Jasmine has already existed in Indonesia since XV AD and this is a good flower to worship Ciwa in the new moon of the seventh month or the month of Magha. This is the holy night to worship Ciwa to wipe out one's sin. Magha comes once a year or every 420 days according to the Balinese calendar. The Ciwa worshippers use Jasmine flowers in their offerings. It is believed that this flower brings forgiveness and blessing and eventually they will be able to be united with Ciwa in heaven.
Description:
  • bushy vine or scrambling shrub
  • shiny dark green leaves
  • evergreen leaves are in whorls of three and others are in opposite pairs
  • long, angular shoots twist and twine as they clamber and sprawl over and through any support they can find
  • fragrant little white flowers
  • waxy snow white flowers are about 1 in (2.5 cm) across, borne in clusters of 3-12, and intensely fragrant
  • They fade to pink as they age
  • blooms throughout the summer - and almost continuously in warm climates
  • fruits are small black berries, but are seldom formed in cultivation
  • most common form of Arabian jasmine in cultivation is 'Grand Duke of Tuscany' (sometimes called 'Flore Pleno'), which has double flowers that look like miniature gardenias
  • grow no more than 6-10 ft (1.8-3.1 m) high and just as wide in frostfree areas; smaller when it has to regrow from roots following a winter freeze
Features:
- about 200 species of shrubs and vines, mostly from Asia, Europe and Africa. See Floridata's profiles on star jasmine (Jasminum nitidum ), downy jasmine (Jasminum multiflorum), and three other true jasmines.
- Several other plants, completely unrelated, also go by the name jasmine. Confederate jasmine (Trachelospermum jasminoides) and night-blooming jasmine, (Cestrum nocturnum) for example, are not true jasmines, but they are sweet smelling nonetheless.
J. sambac probably originated in India and was brought to Malaysia and Java around the 3rd century; since then widely cultivated throughout the Malesian region for its heavily scented flowers.

Native:
ASIA-TROPICAL Indian Subcontinent: Bangladesh; India [e.]Indo-China: Myanmar
Other:
widely cultivated
Ecology / Cultivation:
Heat Tolerance: Resistant to full sun and reflected heat in Phoenix
Sun Exposure: Full sun or partial shade
Origin: Native to India, widely cultivated in South China
Growth Habits: Evergreen shrub to 10 feet (3m)
Watering Needs: Regular watering for optimum growth
Moisture: Supply plenty of water during the summer growing season, but reduce watering in winter.


Blooming Habits:
Blooms from June to September but it can bloom all year long in the greenhouse. Flowers are ¾ to 1 inch across and are powerfully fragrant.

WARNING

The Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council lists this species as a Category II exotic invasive. This indicates that it has increased in abundance or frequency but has not yet altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species. These species may become ranked Category I, if ecological damage is demonstrated. Arabian jasmine cannot be recommended for landscape use in Florida and caution should be excercised when considering this plant for use in similar frostfree climates.

Invasive exotic plants are termed Category I invasives when they are altering native plant communities by displacing native species, changing community structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives. This definition does not rely on the economic severity or geographic range of the problem, but on the documented ecological damage caused. Category II invasive exotics have increased in abundance or frequency but have not yet altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species. These species may become Category I if ecological damage is demonstrated.


Usage:
  • European, at the Christmas homestead, they have an Arabian jasmine in a big pot on the front porch - where they can smell its sweet perfume whenever we walk by.
  • The dried flowers of Arabian jasmine are used by the Chinese to flavor jasmine tea.
  • In India they're used in garlands.
  • The Hindus string the flowers together as neck garlands for honored guests.
  • the national flower of the Philippines and Indonesia.
  • According to Himalaya’s Herbs & Mineral, the flowers and its oil are used as aromatic and refresher to the skin.
  • The flowers are used in making perfumes and as a flavoring in tea.
  • Some varieties are used as religious offerings symbolizing divine hope.
  • The flowers of one of the double varieties ("Belle of India") are held sacred to Vishnu and are used as votive offerings in Hindu religious ceremonies.
  • Referring to famous Swedish botanist Linnaeus, he wrote that the natives of India used the young leaves and flowers to make putty, which was mixed and eaten with rice to dry scabies and other skin eruptions.
  • used as a popular garnish in Indonesia.
  • In Javanese weddings, this flower is commonly used for hair and dagger decorations for the bride and the groom.
  • Cure fevers
  • In Bali people plant this in the main temples or the family temples.
  • Jasmine is a good flower to use as a medium of praying to worship the god Iswara. The color of this god is white and located in the east.
  • This flower is also used for the big ceremonies such as Tawur Agung - the ceremony to bless the whole world.
  • In Borneo it is the custom among the women to roll up Jasmine blossoms in their well-oiled hair at night.

Jasmine tea and other culinary uses:

Jasmine tea has been made since ancient times and is said to have spiritual powers. This tea is cleverly made by resting the tea leaves strategically beside the powerfully scented Jasmine flowers. The scent is then used in the leaves capturing its essence to create an aromatic affair. In Asia the flowers are used to scent not only teas but desserts as well. Jasmine tea is the best tea is made with Maid of Orleans (single flower) variety. Pick up fully open flowers and leave them in a cup with hot water for 15-30 min. The extract is added to tea or taken pure. Try it yourself.
The scenting technique of the green tea belongs to Chinese Sung dynasty of the 13th century and consists in blending a few leaves of non-fermented tea with Jasmine flowers for some hours at night, when they release their essential oils.
Jasmine chocolate of the Grand Duke of Tuscany
· 10lb roasted, crushed cocoa beans
· Jasmine flowers
· 8lb sugar
· 3oz vanilla pods
· 4oz cinnamon
· 1/12 oz ambergris
Layer the Jasmine and the cocoa. Leave for 24 hours, then mix and add more layers. Repeat 10 times. Add the remaining ingredients and grind together.


Medicine:
  • The Chinese, Arabians and Indians used Jasmine medicinally, as an aphrodisiac and for ceremonial purposes.
  • The root is used in China to treat headaches, insomnia, and pain due to dislocated joints and broken bones; it is reported to have anesthetic properties. Several Jasminium species have been used in cancers.
  • Aroma-therapists find the Jasmine flower an antidepressant and relaxing herb which is said to help with dry or sensitive skin and tiredness. In vapor therapy Jasmine oil can be useful for addiction, depression, nervousness, coughs, relaxation and tension.
  • Jasmine oil can be used as a blended massage oil or diluted in the bath for almost everything: addiction, postnatal depression, relaxation, muscle pain, coughs, tension, stress and nervousness.
  • as base cream or lotion for dry or greasy and sensitive skin, as well as assisting with stretch marks and scars.
  • In Borneo young Jasmine leaf is boiled and the infusion is taken to treat gallstones. Root is boiled and the infusion to treat diabetes mellitus.
Other medical uses of Jasmine sambac:

·
Abdomen - China
·
Anesthetic - China
·
Anodyne - China
·
Conjunctivitis - China
·
Dysentery - China
·
Fracture - China
·
Insomnia -China
·
Sedative - China
·
Sore - China
·
Tumor - China
·
Headache - China, Malaysia, Iraq

·
Antiemmenagogueue - Samoa

·
Asthma - Phillipines

·
Dermatosis - Malaysia · Collyrium - Iraq, Malaysia · Fever - Iraq
·
Sapraemia - Malaysia · Decongestant - Iraq, Malaysia · Lotion - Iraq
·
Venereal – Malaysia

·
Lactifuge - Asia · Tumor (Breast) - India
·
Skin - Asia

Traditional Uses: (commonly use by Indonesian)
·
Flowers: reduce fever and swollen eyes (tumbuk halus,tampal pada dahi)
: Bees sting (ramas & tampalkan pada tempat sengatan)
·
Leaf : Sesak Nafas(10 daun melati+3 gelas air + garam ,rebus hingga jadi 2 cawan & minum),
: Acne (10 helai+belerang diramas dgn 2 sudu air limau nipis,sapukan)

Jasmine oil:
  • sweet, exotic and rich floral smell
  • deep orange-brown in color
  • Jasmine small white star-shaped flowers picked at night when the aroma is most intense.
  • France, Italy, Morocco, Egypt, China, Japan and Turkey produce the best oil.
  • one of the most expensive scents in the world costing upwards of $1,500-3,000 a pound.
  • In manufacturing, Jasmine oil is produced as a 'concrete' by solvent extraction, and an absolute is obtained from the concrete by separation with alcohol, and an essential oil is produced off the absolute by steam distillation.
  • The main chemical components of Jasmine oil are: Benzyl, Nerol, Terpineol, Linalyl acetate, Methyl anthranilate, Jasmone and Farnesol.
Food additives: flavoring (for "jasmine tea" fide Baileya 13:157. 1965; F China; Eur Gard F)
Environmental: ornamental (fide Krussmann)
Materials: essential oils (fide Wealth India RM 5:290. 1959; Flower Oils; Pl Res SEAs 12(1):319. 1999)
Medicines: folklore (fide F ChinaEng; Pl Res SEAs 12(1):319. 1999)

by michaelNovember 9, 2011 at 11:56 AM I found some information that Jasminum may also be used as help for Hodgkin’s disease and cancers of the bone, lymph nodes, and breast.




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