Sabtu, 20 April 2013


Cananga odorata (Lamk) Hook.F. & Thomson

Cananga odorata (Lamk) Hook.F. & Thomson

In Southest Asian origin, Cananga odorata, commonly known as ylang-ylang, is a medium –size tree that has been introduce into many islands in the Pacific for its fragrant flowers. This species is often found growing spontaneously in secondary forests and agro forests, where it regenerates easily. It is also a common garden ornamental. In Madagascar and the Comoro Islands, ylang-ylang is value as the source for ylang-ylang oil, which figures prominently in the perfume industry and aromatherapy. In Indonesia, this species is a component of mixed and teak forests.It is a commonly planted and spontaneous tree in secondary forests and agro forests in Micronesia and Polynesia.

Kingdom : Plantae
Order: Magnoliales
Family : Annonaceae (Custard-apple family)
Genus: Cananga
Spesies : Cananga odorata
Vernacular name:
canang odorant (French), chirang, irang (Palau), derangerang, derangirang (Nauru), ilahnglahng, ilanlang (Kosrae), ilang-ilang, alang-ilang (Guam, CNMI), ilangilang, lengileng, alangilang, pur-n-wai, pwurenwai, seir en wei (Pohnpei), ilanilan(Marshall Islands), lanalana (Hawai), makosoi, mokohoi, makasui, mokosoi (Fiji), mohokoi (Tonga), moso’oi (Samoa), moto’i (French Polynesia), moto’oi, mata’oi, mato’oi (Cook Islands, Niue, Tahiti) motoi( marquesas-Nukuhiya, Niue), sa’o (Solomon Islands), ylang-ylang, perfume tree, cananga, cadmia (English), apurvachampaka, chettu sampangi, karumugai (India), ilang-ilang, alang-ilang (Philippines), kadatngan, kadatnyan (Myanmar), kernanga (Indonesia), kenanga, chenanga,ylang-ylang (Malaysia).
Non-preffered scientific name :
i) Canangium fruticosum Craib
ii) Canangium odoratum (Lamk) Baill. Ex King
iii) Canangium scortechinii King
iv) Uvaria odorata Lamk


Native range -:
Ylang-ylang is native to Indo-Malaysia and has been widely introduced by Polynesians, Micronesians and early European explorers into many islands in the Pacific, where in some places it has become naturalized.
Current Distribution -:
Grows in a geographical zone ranging from India to Polynesia.

Ylang-ylang is of medium size 10-40m (33-130ft) in height, although rarely over 30m (100ft) and typically 10-20m(33-66ft). Branches are pendulous or slightly erect with drooping, leafy twigs. The tree is usually quite straggly, often with long, leafy twigs dangling 3-6 m (10-20ft). There is a single main trunk that is usually bent to some degree. The bark is smooth and grayish white to silvery.

In flowers throughout the year in axillary, umbellate hanging clusters 0f 4-12 flowers. The flower has three sepals and six petals up to 8 cm (2.4 in) long. The petals are twisted when young, the limps and drooping when mature. Flowers are very fragrant, greenish yellow at first, then turning a deep yellow/yellow brown when mature. Merlin et al. (1993) stated that on Kosrae this plant flowers at the same time as other fruits or nut trees, e.g., breadfruit, pandanus, mango and Tahitian chestnut (Inocarpus fagifer). In Madagascar, the trees flowers year-round, but mainly during the rainy season from November to March.

Leaves are dark green, up to 20 cm(8 in) in length, alternate, simple, entire, elliptic-oblong, slightly pubescent and with a prominent midrib and drip tip. As with most members of this family, the leaves are arranged mainly along a plane.
Greenish black in color, 1.5-2.5 cm(0.6-1.0) in length, containing 6-12 stalked fruitlets, fleshy, olive-like and borne in axillary clusters. There are 6-12, small, pale brown, flattened ovoid seeds in each fruits.


Open, veinlet branching; marginal vein incomplete


Adaxial anticlinal walls sinuous, abaxial anticlinal walls sinuous; stomata paracytic

TS Lamina
Adaxial epidermis 1:1-1:2, abaxial epidermis 1:2, hypodermis nil, palisade 1 layer, spongy mesophyll 4-5 layers of cells, sclereids nil, crystals nil, trichomes nil. Secretory cells not seen.

TS Margin
Slightly pointing downwards, tip rounded, scelerenchyma nil.

TS Midrib
Outline: adaxial surface with small hump, abaxial surface “U” shape. Ground tissue collenchymatous cells adaxially and abaxially. Vascular tissue: open type in separate bundles arranged in ‘V’ shaped; sclerenchyma sheath interrupted; trichomes: simple, unicellular to uniseriate occasionally seen; crystals nil; secretory cells: large cells near phloem tissue.

TS Petiole
Outline: semi-circular in shape with adaxial surface channeled. Outer tissue: collenchyma nil. Vascular tissue : open type, separate bundles laid in an arc; sclerenchyma sheath interrupted on adaxial and abaxial side of bundles; trichomes: simple unicellular to uniseriate ; crystals nil. Secretory cells: some enlarged cells near phloem tissue.

The tree is ornamental, and its very pleasant fragrance makes it appropriate in landscaping. Regular top pruning maybe necessary to keep the tree from growing too tall in an urban setting. The spesies is used as a street tree in Malaysia.

The timber is pinkish, yellowish to light gray, non-durable, and vulnerable to termite attack. The wood is coarse textured and straight grained. In Tonga and Samoa it is used for general construction and canoe making. The timber used for furniture in Cook Islands (Thaman et al. 2000). The wood for is also used for lathe turnings, boxes and crates, clugs/wooden shoes and fishnet floats (Chudnoff 1984).

The wood is occasionally used for fuelwood.

It is a minor wood for tool handles (Thaman et al. 2000)

The bark has very minor use for cordage. In Sulawesi, the bark is beaten to make coarse rope.

Body ornamentation/ garlands
The tree is a very important source of flowers in Micronesia and Polynesia. The very heavily scented flowers are used for garlands, headdresses and other personal adornment.

The primary commercial product is the distilled oil for the perfume industry, much of which is shipped to France. Ylang-ylang oil is said to be the for Chanel and perfume by Guerlain. Ylang-ylang is often used as a scent for coconut oil in the Pacific islands. The special name of potea is reserved for the this scented oil in Tonga. When used in moderation, the oil is an allergen and has been removed from some cosmetics. During the mid-1900s, ylang-ylang oil was used in a popular hair pomade manufactured in Hawai’i. Cananga oil mixed with coconut oil is called Macassar oil and used for hair dressing in Southest Asia.

Ceremonial/ religious important
The tree has minor ceremonial importance. While the plant maybe a recent introduction to Tonga, ylang-ylang (mohokoi) is categorized there as a culturally important or sacred plant (akau kakala), along with other sacred or culturally important indigenous plants.

The bark is used in Tonga and Samoa to treat stomach ailments and sometimes as a laxative. In Java, the dried flowers are used against malaria and the fresh flowers are pounded into a paste to treat asthma. A distillate of the flowers is said to have medicinal value by herbalists and aromatherapists. Aromatherapists claim that oil is useful for depression, distressed breathing, high blood pressure, anxiety, as an aphrodisiac and others. It also used to treat internal heat ,paralysis, pruritis, swellings, jaundice, scabies, ringworm, sores and to ease childbirth as well as in postpartum therapy.

Flavoring/ spices

The distilled oils are sometimes used to flavor beverages and foods.

Constituent of ylang-ylang oil
- Geraniol and linalool esters of acetic and benzoic acids
- p- cresol methyl ester
- Cadinene
- Sesquiterpene
- Phenol
- Pinen
- Benzyl alcohol
- Creosol
- Carcinogenic
- formic acid
- Benzyl acetate

Cytotoxic constituent of the fruits of Cananga odorata

- Guaipyridine sesquiterpene alkaloid
- Eudesmane sesquiterpene

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