TO DIAGNOSIS DIABETES MELLITUS:
"Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent
hyperglycemia, and is diagnosed by demonstrating any one of the following:
1. Fasting plasma glucose level at or above 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/l). 2. Plasma glucose at or above 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/l) two hours after a 75 g oral glucose load as in a glucose tolerance test.
3. Random plasma glucose at or above 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/l). "
World Health Organisation Department of Noncommunicable Disease
Surveillance (1999). Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications (PDF).
TO MONITOR DIABETES MELLITUS:
1. GLYCOSYLATED HAEMOGLOBIN (HbA1c): an elevated level of HbA1c of 6.0% or higher (the 2003 revised U.S. standard) is considered abnormal by most labs; HbA1c is primarily used as a treatment-tracking test reflecting average blood glucose levels over the preceding 90 days (approximately). Higher levels of HbA1c are found in people with persistently elevated blood sugar, as in diabetes mellitus. Glycosolated hemoglobin is recommended for monitoring blood sugar control in patients with diabetes mellitus. The American Diabetes Association guidelines are similar to others in advising that the test be performed at least two times a year in patients who are meeting treatment goals (and who have stable glycemic control)and quarterly in patients whose therapy has changed or who are not meeting glycemic goals.
2. C-PEPTIDE: Newly diagnosed diabetes patients often get their C-peptide levels measured, to find if they are type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes.
3. URINE MICROALBUMIN: A Microalbumin Urine Test detects the presence of the protein albumin in urine. (For diagnoses of Microalbuminuria)
These notes can provide a little insight regarding types of test
for Diagnosis and Monitoring of the disease.