Sabtu, 20 April 2013


Mesua ferrea L.

Mesua ferrea L.


Kingdom : Plantae
Division : Magnoliopyhta
Class : Magnoliosida
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Clusiaceae/Guttiferae
Genus: Mesua

Spesies: Mesua Ferrea L.

Vernacular name- Ceylon Ironwood, Indian rose chestnut, Cobra’s saffron, Penaga Lilin or Nahar

i) Mesua coromandelina Wight

ii) Mesua nagassarium (Burm.f.) K.

iii) Mesua pedunculata Wight

iv) Mesua roxburghii Wight

v) Mesua sclerophylla T.

vi) Mesua speciosa Choisy

The plant is named after heaviness of its timber and cultivated in tropical climates for its form, foliage and fragrant flowers. Its native to tropical Sri Langka, Assam, southern Nepal, Indochina and Malay Peninsula.

It is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree up to 13 m tall, often buttressed at the base with a trunk up to 90 cm in diameter; it has simple, narrow, oblong, dark green 7-15 long, with a whitish underside; the emerging young leaves are red to yellowish pink and drooping; the flowers are 4-7.5 cm diameter, with four white petals, a centre of numerous yellow stamens and fragrant; the fruits are ovoid, nearly woody; the seeds are dark brown.

- Main venation closed; marginal venation fimbriate.

- Adaxial anticlinal walls wavy to sinuous, abaxial anticlinal walls wavy to sinuous; stomata paracytic.

TS lamina-:
- Adaxial epidermis 1:1-1:2; abaxial epidermis 1:, outer wall conical to rounded, inner wall thicked; hypodermis nil; palisade 1 layer, outer wall thick; spongy mesophyll 7-8 layers; vascular bundles with fibrous girders extending to abaxial and adaxial epidermis; sclereids nil; crystals:solitary, few clustered; secretory glands in mesophyll tissue; trichomes nil.

TS Margin-:
- Outline: curving downwards slightly, tip rounded; sclerenchyma present.

TS Midrib-:
- Outline: adaxial surface and abaxial surface nearly flat. Ground tissue thick-walled cells beneath epidermis. Vascular strand closed type, flattened in shape; sheath: Fibres nearly uninterrupted; trichomes nil; secretory glands in ground tissue; crystals: nil.

TS Petiole-:
- Outline: nearly semi-circular in shape. Outer tissue: collenchymas nil; Vascular tissue; open type, arc shape with incurved ends; sheath: small groups of fibres; trichomes nil, secretory glands in ground tissue; crystals; solitary and clustered in parenchyma and phloem cells.

Chemical content in seed oil

- Resin
- Oleic acid
- Linoleic acid
- Palmitic acid
- Stearic acid


National trees of Sri Lagka. The National Ironwood Forest is a 96ha (238 acre) forest in Sri Langka where Mesua Ferrea trees dominate the vegetation. It is said that during King Dappula IV's period (8th century AD) this forest was created and the remaining trees are the shoots of it. Hence it is considered the oldest manmade forest in Sri Langka. According to botanists this is the only ironwood forest in the dry zone with wet zone vegetation.
It was chosen as The National Tree for seven reasons:
1) It is a tree which originated in Sri Langka
2) Its utility
3) Historic and cultural importance
4) Exterior posture
5) Wide distribution
6) Color and nature
7) Ability to draw and sketch it easily

i) Medicinal values-:
Leaves – applied to the head in the form of a poultice for severe colds.
Oil from the seeds- sores, scabies, wounds and rheumatism.
Roots- an antidote for snake poison.
Dried flowers- bleeding hemorrhoids and dysentery with mucus.
Fresh flowers- excessive thirst, excessive perspiration, cough and digestion.

ii) Economic values-:
· The woods is very heavy and its used for railroad ties and structural timbers.

iii) As an ornamental
iv) Important in ceremonial uses
v) The fragrant stamens may be used for stuffing pillows and for the cushions in bridal beds.
vi) The renewable of seed oil have a tremendous potential for preparation of industrial polyester resin

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