Sabtu, 18 Februari 2012
Southeast Asia and New Guinea. Locally, in various northern sites. Semi-erect to climbing herb with thin, wiry, spineless, dark-green stems; leaf blades with smooth margins or slightly lobed, mostly without spines; flowers in neatly organised spikes at branch tips; petals white, turning brown when older; fruits are very rare. Found in tidal mud among grasses. From Malay folklore, powdered seeds are taken with water as a blood cleansing medicine and against ulcers. Vulnerable.
From India to Polynesia and Australia. Locally, in various northern sites. Erect herbs, up to 2.5 m tall, with spiny, often yellowish stems; leaves like those of holly, leaf blade dark green, slightly to deeply lobed with a spine at each lobe's tip especially in exposed conditions, flat. Flowers in neatly organised spikes at branch tips; petals large, showy and light violet; capsules squarish and slightly flattened, exploding when ripe to send its whitish, flat seeds flying up to 2 m from the parent plant. Shaded to fully-exposed in the undergrowth and on mud lobster mounds. From Malay folklore, leaves are used as treatment for rheumatism, neuralgia and wounds of poison arrows. Rare.
Southeast Asia. Locally, in various northern sites as well as dykes of the Western Catchment Area. Erect, shrubby herbs up to 1.5 m tall, with many spiny, usually green stems; leaves like those of holly, leaf blade dark green, stiff, deeply lobed with sharp spines at each lobe's tip and curved in full sun, flatter in shade; with neatly organised spikes; flowers in spikes at branch tips; petals white turning brownish when older; capsules squarish and slightly flattened, exploding when ripe to send their whitish, flat seeds flying up to 2 m from the parent plant. Shaded to fully-exposed in the undergrowth and on mud-lobster mounds.From Malay folklore, the pounded seeds are used to cure boils and to prevent the condition for as many years as there are pounded seeds in the draught, the juice of leaves is reputed to prevent hair loss. Rare.