Vol. 87 No. 4, April 1997. p. 585-590. Sept. 2002.
Addiction. Vol. 97 No. 9. p.1083-1086. Sept. 1997
8) THE “GATEWAY EFFECT” MAY BE A MIRAGE: Marijuana is often called a “gateway drug” by supporters of prohibition, who point to statistical “associations” indicating that persons who use marijuana are more likely to eventually try hard drugs than those who never use marijuana – implying that marijuana use somehow causes hard drug use. But a model developed by RAND Corp. researcher Andrew Morral demonstrates that these associations can be explained “without requiring a gateway effect.” More likely, this federally funded study suggests, some people simply have an underlying propensity to try drugs, and start with what’s most readily available.
Addiction. December 2002. p. 1493-1504.
Vol. 8. Sept. 1997, p. 722-728.
American Thoracic Society International Conference. May 23, 2006.
New York Times. Apr. 21, 2006)